Alignment reflects a character's attitude toward society and the universe.
Characters of this alignment believe an orderly, strong society with a moral government makes life better for the majority of the people. When people respect the laws and help one another, society as a whole prospers. Therefore, lawful good characters strive for those things that will bring the greatest benefit to the most people and cause the least harm. Lawful good characters keep their word.
These characters believe a balance of forces is important, but that the concerns of law and chaos do not moderate the need for good. Since the universe is vast and contains many creatures striving for different goals, a determined pursuit of good will not upset the balance; it may even maintain it. If fostering good means supporting organized society, then that is what must be done. If good can only come about through the overthrow of existing social order, so be it. Social structure itself has no innate value to them.
Chaotic good characters are individualists with a benevolent streak. They believe in all the virtues of goodness and right, but they have little care for laws and regulations. Their actions are guided by their own moral compass which, although good, may not always be in perfect agreement with the rest of society.
Order and organization are of paramount importance to characters of this alignment. They believe in a strong, well-ordered government, whether that government is a tyranny or benevolent democracy. Laws must be created and obeyed. The benefits of organization and regimentation far outweigh any moral questions raised by their actions. An oath is binding, regardless of consequences. A completely impartial magistrate, or a soldier who never questions his orders, are good examples of lawful neutral behavior.
True neutral characters believe in the ultimate balance of forces and refuse to see actions as either good or evil. True neutrals avoid siding with the forces of either good or evil, law or chaos. It is their duty to see that all of these forces remain in balanced contention. True neutral characters sometimes find themselves forced into rather peculiar alliances. To a great extent, they side with the underdog, sometimes even changing sides as the previous loser becomes the winner. A true neutral druid might join the local barony to put down a tribe of goblins, only to drop out or switch sides when the goblins were brought to the brink of destruction.
Chaotic neutral characters believe there is no order to anything, including their own actions. With this as a guiding principle, they tend to follow whatever whim strikes them at the moment. Good and evil are irrelevant when making a decision. Chaotic neutral characters are extremely difficult to deal with. Such characters have been known to cheerfully and for no apparent purpose gamble away everything they have on the roll of a single die.
These characters believe structure and organization elevate those who deserve to rule. They prefer a clearly defined hierarchy between master and servant. If someone suffers because of a law that benefits lawful evil characters, too bad. Lawful evil characters obey laws out of fear of punishment or pride of power. Because they honor any contract or oath they have made, lawful evil characters are careful about giving their word. Once given, they break their word only if they can find a way to do it within the laws of the society.
Neutral evil characters are primarily concerned with themselves and their own advancement. If there is a quick and easy way to gain a profit, whether it be legal, questionable, or obviously illegal, they take advantage of it. Although neutral evil characters do not have the every-man-for-himself attitude of chaotic evil characters, they have no qualms about betraying their friends and companions for personal gain. They typically base their allegiance on power and money, which makes them quite receptive to bribes.
Chaotic evil characters are motivated by personal pleasure. The strong have the right to take what they want, and the weak are there to be exploited. When chaotic evil characters band together, they are not motivated by a desire to cooperate, but rather to oppose powerful enemies. Such a group can be held together only by a strong leader capable of bullying his underlings into obedience. Since leadership is based on raw power, a leader is likely to be replaced at the first sign of weakness by anyone who can take his position away from him.